The goal of the history / social science requirement is to ensure that students arrive at UC ready to undertake college-level study in history. Historical thinking distinguishes itself from other modes of thought in that it sees the objects of its analysis as situated in a particular time and place, and as having emerged from a particular nexus of developments. This approach to the world should be introduced to students through the history / social science requirement. Thus, more important than content coverage is the set of attitudes and habits of mind that foster historical literacy.
During the Middle Ages , the fall of the Roman empire led to a shift in the evolution of geography from Europe to the Islamic world .  Muslim geographers such as Muhammad al-Idrisi produced detailed world maps (such as Tabula Rogeriana ), while other geographers such as Yaqut al-Hamawi , Abu Rayhan Biruni , Ibn Battuta , and Ibn Khaldun provided detailed accounts of their journeys and the geography of the regions they visited. Turkish geographer, Mahmud al-Kashgari drew a world map on a linguistic basis, and later so did Piri Reis ( Piri Reis map ). Further, Islamic scholars translated and interpreted the earlier works of the Romans and the Greeks and established the House of Wisdom in Baghdad for this purpose.  Abū Zayd al-Balkhī , originally from Balkh , founded the "Balkhī school" of terrestrial mapping in Baghdad .  Suhrāb, a late tenth century Muslim geographer accompanied a book of geographical coordinates, with instructions for making a rectangular world map with equirectangular projection or cylindrical equidistant projection.  [ verification needed ]